The following are some key references for the effectiveness of manipulation and manual therapy on the lower extremity. Over 50 adjustments for the lower extremity will be taught in my evidence-informed, clinically effective upcoming seminar on The Art of Lower Extremity Adjusting, @ the NYCC Levittown NY facility on September 8, 2018.
World Federation of Chiropractic: Conditions: Extremities (Arm / Leg)
Manipulative Therapy for Lower Extremity Conditions: Expansion of Literature Review. Brantingham, James W. et al. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics , Volume 32 , Issue 1 , 53 – 71
Manipulative therapy for lower extremity conditions: update of a literature review. James W. Brantingham, Debra Bonnefin, Stephen M. Perle, Tammy Kay Cassa, Gary Globe, Mario Pribicevic, Marian Hicks, Charmaine Korporaal . J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Feb; 35(2): 127–166. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2012.01.001
Manipulative therapy of lower extremity conditions: Summary of Clinical Practice. Recommendations from the Commission of the Council on Chiropractic Guidelines and Practice Parameters. http://clinicalcompass.org/downloads/manipulative_therapy_lower_extremity.pdf
Alteration in corticospinal excitability, talocrural joint range of motion, and lower extremity function following manipulation in non-disabled individuals. Davenport TE, Reischl SF, Sungkarat S, Cozby J, Meyer L, Fisher BE. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Practice. 2013;25(2):97-102.
Optum Policy on Extraspinal Manipulation (good list of references)
Manual therapy in joint and nerve structures combined with exercises in the treatment of recurrent ankle sprains: A randomized, controlled trial. Plaza-Manzano G, Vergara-Vila M, Val-Otero S, et al. Man Ther. 2016 Dec;26:141-149
Full Kinetic Chain Manual and Manipulative Therapy Plus Exercise Compared With Targeted Manual and Manipulative Therapy Plus Exercise for Symptomatic Osteoarthritis of the Hip: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Brantingham, James W. et al.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Volume 93 , Issue 2 , 259 – 267
Manual therapy, exercise therapy, or both, in addition to usual care, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a randomized control trial. 1: clinical effectiveness Abbott JH, Robertson MC, Chapple C, Pinto D, Wright AA, Leon de la Barra S, Baxter GD, Theis JC, Campbell AJ. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. April 2013; 21(4): 525-34.
Manual Therapy for Hip Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Wang, Qiong et al. Pain physician 18 6 (2015): E1005-20.
Effects of exercise and manual therapy on pain associated with hip osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Beumer L, Wong J, Warden SJ, et al . Br J Sports Med 2016;50:458-463
Comparison of high, medium and low mobilization forces for increasing range of motion in patients with hip osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial. Estébanez-de-Miguel, E., Fortún-Agud, M., Jimenez-del-Barrio, S., Caudevilla-Polo, S., Bueno-Gracia, E., Tricás-Moreno, J.M. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice,Volume 36, 2018,
Immediate effects of hip mobilization with movement in patients with hip osteoarthritis: A randomised controlled trial. Carlos Beselga, Francisco Neto, Francisco Alburquerque-Sendín, Toby Hall, Natália Oliveira-Campelo. Manual Therapy, Volume 22, 2016,
Manual and Manipulative Therapy in Addition to Rehabilitation for Osteoarthritis of the Knee: Assessor-Blind Randomized Pilot Trial. Lauren Dwyer, Gregory F. Parkin-Smith, James W. Brantingham, Charmaine Korporaal, Tammy K. Cassa, Gary Globe, Debra Bonnefin, Victor Tong. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Volume 38, Issue 1, 2015.
Treatment effectiveness and fidelity of manual therapy to the knee: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Salamh P, Cook C, Reiman MP, Sheets C. Musculoskeletal Care. 2016 Jan 1.
Changes in co-contraction during stair descent after manual therapy protocol in knee osteoarthritis: A pilot, single-blind, randomized study. Cruz-Montecinos C, Flores-Cartes R, Montt-Rodriguez A, Pozo E, Besoaín-Saldaña A, Horment-Lara G. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2016 Apr 27.
Joint mobilization enhances mechanisms of conditioned pain modulation in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. ourtney CA, Steffen AD, Fernández-De-Las-Peñas C, Kim J, Chmell SJ. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy. 2016 Mar;46(3):168-76.
Effects of orthopaedic manual therapy in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Shahnawaz Anwer, Ahmad Alghadir, Hamayun Zafar, Jean-Michel Brismée. Physiotherapy, Volume 104, Issue 3, 2018,
Ankle and Foot Manual Therapy for Aging and Older Adults. Laufer, Rachel, et al. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation: July/September 2015 – Volume 31 – Issue 3 – p 211–216.
Manipulative Therapy and Rehabilitation for Recurrent Ankle Sprain With Functional Instability: A Short-Term, Assessor-Blind, Parallel-Group Randomized Trial. Lubbe, Danella et al.. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics , Volume 38 , Issue 1 , 22 – 34
The effects of manual therapy for Chronic Ankle Instability: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Shi, X, et al. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, November 2017. 20:27